The Inside Story of ChatGPTโ€™s Astonishing Potential | Greg Brockman | TED

20 Apr 202330:10

TLDRGreg Brockman, co-founder of OpenAI, discusses the journey and current state of AI, emphasizing the importance of steering AI in a positive direction. He showcases the capabilities of the new DALL-E model and ChatGPT, highlighting their ability to generate images, interact with tools, and learn from human feedback. Brockman stresses the significance of incremental deployment and global participation in shaping AI's future, advocating for a collective effort to ensure artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity.


  • ๐Ÿš€ OpenAI was founded seven years ago to guide the development of AI in a positive direction, reflecting on its rapid progress since then.
  • ๐Ÿค– The current state of AI technology, particularly the new DALL-E model, demonstrates the ability to generate images from text, showcasing AI's creative potential.
  • ๐Ÿ› ๏ธ AI tools like ChatGPT are being integrated with memory functions and other applications, allowing for complex tasks like creating shopping lists and social media posts.
  • ๐Ÿ” AI's ability to self-inspect and receive feedback is crucial for learning and improvement, enabling it to understand and execute complex user intents.
  • ๐ŸŒ The integration of AI with traditional UIs is seen as an augmentation rather than a replacement, highlighting the value of human oversight and control.
  • ๐Ÿ“ˆ AI's potential is exemplified by its ability to analyze large datasets and generate insights, like visualizing trends in AI research publications over 30 years.
  • ๐Ÿ”„ The process of training AI involves a two-step approach of unsupervised learning followed by human feedback to refine and guide the AI's application of its skills.
  • ๐Ÿค” The concept of 'emergence' in AI is discussed, where scaling up the model leads to new capabilities and behaviors not explicitly programmed.
  • ๐ŸŒŸ AI's potential to transform everyday tasks is highlighted, suggesting a future where humans and AI collaborate closely to solve problems and improve efficiency.
  • ๐Ÿ“š The importance of public involvement and literacy in AI is emphasized, as it affects how the technology is integrated into society and its potential benefits.
  • ๐Ÿ’ก OpenAI's mission is to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity, and that achieving this requires collective effort and responsible deployment.

Q & A

  • Why was OpenAI founded seven years ago?

    -OpenAI was founded to help steer the development of artificial intelligence in a positive direction during a time when interesting advancements were happening in the field.

  • What is the significance of the DALL-E model mentioned in the transcript?

    -The DALL-E model is significant because it generates images based on text prompts, expanding the capabilities of AI to carry out user intent in a more creative and detailed manner.

  • How does the AI in ChatGPT manage to select and use different tools without explicit instructions?

    -ChatGPT uses a unified language interface and has been trained to understand and infer user intent, allowing it to autonomously select and apply various tools in different situations.

  • What is the two-step process used to train ChatGPT?

    -The two-step process involves first creating a 'child machine' through unsupervised learning, where the AI predicts what comes next in text, and then providing human feedback to teach the AI what to do with its learned skills.

  • How does the AI in ChatGPT learn to double-check math problems?

    -The AI learns to double-check math problems through feedback from human teachers, like Sal Khan from Khan Academy, who provide corrections and guidance over time, reinforcing the learning process.

  • What is the role of high-quality feedback in training AI?

    -High-quality feedback is crucial for teaching AI to perform tasks correctly and to generalize its learning, allowing it to apply its knowledge to new, unseen scenarios with improved accuracy.

  • How does the AI fact-check its own work?

    -The AI uses a browsing tool to issue search queries, click into web pages, and verify the information it has provided. It writes out its chain of thought, allowing humans to inspect and verify its reasoning.

  • What is the vision for the future of AI-human collaboration?

    -The vision is for humans and AI to work together in a many-step collaboration, where humans provide management, oversight, and feedback, and AI operates in an inspectable and trustworthy manner, solving problems together more effectively.

  • Why did OpenAI release ChatGPT to the public?

    -OpenAI released ChatGPT to encourage public participation and literacy in AI, allowing everyone to provide feedback and help shape the technology's development and integration into society.

  • What is Greg Brockman's stance on the potential risks of AI development?

    -Greg Brockman believes in a cautious and incremental approach to AI development, emphasizing the importance of scaling up slowly and ensuring that safety precautions are in place as the technology advances.

  • How does Greg Brockman respond to criticisms that OpenAI's public releases have forced other tech companies to rush their AI developments?

    -Brockman argues that the responsible approach is to let reality hit you in the face and to give people time to understand and provide input on the technology before it becomes super powerful, rather than keeping development secret and hoping for the best.



๐Ÿš€ The Birth and Evolution of OpenAI

The speaker reflects on the inception of OpenAI seven years ago, driven by the exciting developments in AI and the desire to guide its trajectory positively. They express amazement at the field's progress and the diverse applications of the technology they've built. The speaker acknowledges the range of emotions people have towards AI, from excitement to concern, and shares the sense of responsibility in entering an historic period where technology will significantly impact society. They introduce a new DALL-E model that generates images and is integrated with ChatGPT, demonstrating its capabilities through a live demo. The speaker emphasizes the importance of building tools for AI and the innovative user interface that allows AI to select tools without explicit instruction, showcasing the potential of AI to manage complex tasks with minimal human input.


๐Ÿง  Training AI Through Feedback: The Turing Test and Beyond

The speaker delves into the methodology of training AI, referencing Alan Turing's ideas from his 1950 paper on the Turing test. They explain that AI is taught through a two-step process involving unsupervised learning and human feedback. The AI, likened to a child machine, is exposed to vast amounts of data and learns to predict text, thereby acquiring various skills. The second step involves human evaluation of AI-generated responses to reinforce the correct processes and outcomes. The speaker shares an anecdote about teaching the AI to double-check math problems, highlighting the iterative nature of AI learning. They also discuss the importance of high-quality feedback and the AI's ability to self-fact-check, further emphasizing the collaborative nature of human-AI interaction.


๐Ÿค– AI and Human Collaboration for Enhanced Problem-Solving

The speaker discusses the collaborative relationship between humans and AI, using the example of fact-checking to illustrate how humans produce data for AI to become more useful. They foresee a future where humans and machines work together in a delicate and precise manner, with humans providing oversight and AI operating in an inspectable and trustworthy manner. The speaker suggests that this collaboration can lead to solving problems deemed impossible and reimagining our interaction with computers. They present an example of using ChatGPT to analyze a large dataset of AI papers, demonstrating the AI's ability to infer meaning from data and generate insights through visualizations. The speaker also addresses the limitations of AI, such as the need for fair data representation and the importance of human guidance in refining AI's output.


๐Ÿฉบ AI as a Brainstorming Partner: A Veterinary Case Study

The speaker narrates a story of a sick dog whose life was saved by a combination of human medical professionals and AI. Despite AI's imperfections, the story illustrates the potential of AI as a brainstorming partner that can enhance human decision-making. The speaker emphasizes the need for widespread participation in shaping AI's role in society, setting rules for its operation. They stress the uniqueness of AI technology, its departure from past expectations, and the importance of becoming literate in AI to harness its full potential. The speaker reiterates OpenAI's mission to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity.


๐ŸŒ OpenAI's Approach to AI Development and Public Deployment

Greg Brockman, a representative from OpenAI, discusses the organization's philosophy behind developing and deploying AI technology. He explains that OpenAI's success is built on the collective progress in compute, algorithms, and data, and the deliberate choice to confront reality head-on. Brockman highlights the importance of diverse teams working harmoniously and the unexpected discoveries that come from scaling AI models. He addresses concerns about the risks of deploying AI without fully understanding its capabilities, advocating for incremental deployment and public feedback to ensure safety and alignment with human values. Brockman argues that the gradual introduction of AI allows for better management and adaptation, and he envisions a future where AI's emergent properties are harnessed responsibly for the benefit of humanity.



๐Ÿ’กArtificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. In the context of the video, AI is the central theme, with the discussion revolving around its advancements, ethical considerations, and potential societal impact. The video specifically highlights the development of AI at OpenAI and its progression over the years, emphasizing the importance of steering AI in a positive direction.


OpenAI is an artificial intelligence research lab that aims to ensure that AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) benefits all of humanity. In the video, OpenAI is presented as the organization behind the development of advanced AI models like GPT-4 and DALL-E, emphasizing the need for transparency, public engagement, and safety in AI development.


DALL-E is an AI model developed by OpenAI known for its ability to generate images from textual descriptions. It represents a significant leap in AI's creative capabilities, demonstrating the technology's capacity to understand and produce complex visual content. In the video, DALL-E is used to illustrate the potential of AI to assist with creative tasks and expand the possibilities of AI applications.


ChatGPT is an AI language model developed by OpenAI, designed to generate human-like text based on the input it receives. It is capable of engaging in conversations, answering questions, and even performing tasks like creating shopping lists or drafting tweets. In the video, ChatGPT is highlighted as an example of AI's evolving capabilities and its potential to integrate with various tools and platforms, enhancing user experience.


In the context of the video, emergence refers to the phenomenon where complex behaviors or capabilities arise from simple interactions in a system, such as an AI model. It is the idea that as AI systems scale up and become more complex, they can develop abilities that were not explicitly programmed, leading to new and sometimes unexpected functionalities.

๐Ÿ’กFeedback Loop

A feedback loop in AI refers to the process of using human input to correct and improve the AI's performance. It involves the AI making predictions or suggestions, humans evaluating those outputs, and providing feedback to the AI, which then learns from this evaluation to improve its future responses. The video emphasizes the importance of high-quality feedback in teaching AI to better understand and carry out human intent.

๐Ÿ’กHuman-AI Collaboration

Human-AI collaboration refers to the partnership between humans and AI systems to achieve outcomes that may not be possible with either working alone. This collaboration leverages human oversight, creativity, and decision-making capabilities with the AI's computational power and ability to process large amounts of data. In the video, the speaker advocates for a future where humans and AI work together in a delicate and thoughtfully designed manner to solve problems more effectively.

๐Ÿ’กSupervised Learning

Supervised learning is a type of machine learning where the model is trained on a labeled dataset, learning to predict outcomes based on input-output pairs. It is a key method in AI development where the system is given examples of desired behavior and adjusts its responses to align with these examples. In the video, supervised learning is contrasted with unsupervised learning, where the AI is exposed to vast amounts of data without specific guidance on what to learn.


In the context of AI, intent refers to the underlying purpose or goal behind a user's request or command. It is the AI's ability to understand and infer what the user wants to achieve, beyond the literal words spoken or typed. The video emphasizes the importance of AI being able to recognize and act upon user intent, which is crucial for creating a seamless and effective user experience.


Generalization in AI is the ability of a model to apply its learned patterns to new, unseen data, effectively using its training to make predictions or decisions in different contexts. It is a measure of how well the AI can transfer its knowledge from one situation to another, indicating a deeper understanding of the data it has been trained on. In the video, generalization is discussed as a key aspect of AI learning, where the AI goes beyond specific examples to understand broader concepts.


Inspectability in AI refers to the ability to understand and review the decision-making process of an AI system. It is crucial for transparency, accountability, and trust, allowing users to see how the AI arrived at its conclusions and make informed decisions about its reliability and appropriateness for the task. The video emphasizes the importance of inspectability in AI tools to ensure they can be effectively supervised and improved.


OpenAI was founded seven years ago to steer AI in a positive direction.

The AI field has made significant progress since OpenAI's inception.

Raymond and others are using OpenAI's technology for various positive applications.

OpenAI aims to manage AI for the benefit of society.

A new DALL-E model generates images based on text prompts.

ChatGPT can now interact with other tools, such as DALL-E, to generate images and text.

AI can be trained to perform tasks through a two-step process involving unsupervised learning and human feedback.

ChatGPT can be used to create shopping lists and even draft tweets.

Traditional UIs remain valuable and can be augmented by AI.

AI can learn from human feedback, much like a child learns from a teacher.

Khan Academy worked with OpenAI to teach the AI to double-check math problems.

AI can be used to fact-check its own work and improve its accuracy.

AI's ability to analyze data sets and generate insights is showcased through a spreadsheet analysis.

AI can make exploratory graphs and visualize data based on high-level instructions.

AI's role in a veterinarian case highlights the potential for AI to assist professionals and improve outcomes.

OpenAI's approach involves incremental deployment and learning from real-world interaction.

The importance of collective responsibility in teaching AI to be wise and beneficial to humanity is emphasized.

OpenAI's mission is to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity.

Greg Brockman explains OpenAI's strategy of releasing AI models to the public for feedback and improvement.