# ChatGPT can't multiply, but can AI do math?

TLDRThe video discusses the limitations of AI in performing mathematical calculations, like multiplication, due to its reliance on statistical patterns rather than understanding. It then explores the use of AI in mathematical research, highlighting the SAT solver's role in solving complex Boolean problems and the application of neural networks by Adam Wagner to find counterexamples in combinatorics. The script suggests AI as a valuable tool for mathematicians, but not a replacement.

### Takeaways

- 🤖 AI struggles with multiplication due to its reliance on statistical predictions rather than true understanding.
- 🧠 Large language models like ChatGPT can make educated guesses about the start and end digits of a multiplication result based on patterns, but fail with the middle digits.
- 📈 AI's predictions are based on the statistical analysis of text it has seen, not on a deep comprehension of mathematical operations.
- 🔍 AI is being utilized by mathematicians for research, particularly with tools like SAT solvers, which can handle complex problems efficiently.
- 🔑 SAT solvers are capable of determining the Boolean satisfiability of sentences, which can be applied to certain mathematical problems.
- 🌐 The Boolean Pythagorean triples problem was solved using a SAT solver, demonstrating the potential of AI in mathematical proofs.
- 🛠 While powerful, SAT solvers require human ingenuity to convert problems into a format they can solve and are not a replacement for mathematicians.
- 📚 AI techniques like neural networks have been used to find counterexamples in combinatorics, challenging existing conjectures.
- 🔄 The cross entropy method trains neural networks to generate potential counterexamples, which are then tested for validity.
- 🔭 This method could save mathematicians time by automating the search for counterexamples and disproving false conjectures.
- 🤝 AI is not expected to replace mathematicians but is seen as a valuable tool to assist them in their research and problem-solving.

### Q & A

### Why does ChatGPT sometimes fail at multiplication when computers are inherently good at arithmetic?

-ChatGPT operates based on predictions from text it has seen before, rather than understanding the context. It can make statistical observations about the start and end of multiplication results but struggles with the middle digits, which depend on all input digits and require more complex understanding.

### How does a SAT solver contribute to mathematical research?

-A SAT solver is used to solve Boolean satisfiability questions, determining if it's possible to substitute 'true' and 'false' for variables in a sentence to make it true. It can handle thousands of variables efficiently with heuristics and optimizations, and has been used to solve complex problems like the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem.

### What is the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem, and how was it resolved using a SAT solver?

-The Boolean Pythagorean triples problem asks if you can color the positive integers red and blue such that no Pythagorean triple is all the same color. The answer is no, and a SAT solver was used to generate a 68-gigabyte proof after two days of computation.

### How do SAT solvers differ from traditional mathematicians in their approach to solving problems?

-SAT solvers are specialized AI tools that can solve very particular types of questions efficiently. They require a clever conversion of a problem into a Boolean sentence and do not replace the creative and intuitive problem-solving skills of mathematicians.

### Can neural networks be used for pure mathematical research, and if so, how?

-Yes, neural networks can be used in pure mathematical research, as demonstrated by Adam Wagner's work. He used neural networks and the cross entropy method to find counterexamples to combinatorics problems, which can save mathematicians time in disproving false conjectures.

### What is the cross entropy method, and how is it used to generate counterexamples in mathematical research?

-The cross entropy method trains a neural network on certain data to predict how to build examples that are likely counterexamples to a conjecture. It then computes which examples are closest to disproving the conjecture and retrains the network based on those examples, iteratively improving the counterexamples.

### How does the cross entropy method save time for mathematicians?

-The cross entropy method saves time by generating counterexamples in a more efficient manner than testing every possible case. It uses neural networks to predict and build counterexamples that are likely to disprove a conjecture, reducing the need for exhaustive manual testing.

### What is the potential impact of AI techniques like neural networks on the future of mathematical research?

-AI techniques like neural networks can serve as powerful tools in mathematical research, potentially finding examples and counterexamples that would be too time-consuming for humans. They can augment the work of mathematicians but are not expected to replace them.

### Why are AI models like ChatGPT not likely to replace mathematicians in the foreseeable future?

-AI models like ChatGPT lack the deep understanding and creative problem-solving abilities of mathematicians. While they can assist in certain tasks, they cannot replicate the full range of skills and intuition required for advanced mathematical research.

### How can AI be integrated into the mathematician's tool belt, and what benefits does it offer?

-AI can be integrated into the mathematician's tool belt by providing assistance in areas such as data analysis, pattern recognition, and generating potential solutions or counterexamples. It offers benefits like increased efficiency, the ability to handle large datasets, and the potential to discover new insights that might be missed by human researchers.

### Outlines

### 🤖 AI's Limitations in Mathematical Computation

The paragraph discusses the limitations of AI, specifically ChatGPT, in performing mathematical operations like multiplication. It explains that while AI can predict the first and last digits of a multiplication result based on statistical patterns, it struggles with the middle digits due to the complexity of the task. The AI's method of responding is based on predictions from previously seen text rather than understanding the content. Despite these limitations, AI is still being utilized by mathematicians for research purposes.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### 💡Multiplication

### 💡Statistical Observations

### 💡Large Language Models

### 💡SAT Solver

### 💡Boolean Satisfiability

### 💡Heuristics

### 💡Neural Networks

### 💡Cross Entropy Method

### 💡Combinatorics

### 💡Counterexamples

### 💡AI in Mathematical Research

### Highlights

ChatGPT struggles with multiplication due to its predictive nature based on statistical observations rather than understanding.

AI's middle digits in multiplication are often incorrect, as they require a more complex understanding than simple statistical predictions.

Large language models like ChatGPT are far from replacing mathematicians due to their limitations in understanding complex mathematical operations.

AI is currently being used by mathematicians for research, particularly with SAT solvers to solve Boolean satisfiability problems.

SAT solvers can determine if it's possible to substitute 'true' and 'false' for variables in a sentence to make it true, using heuristics and optimizations.

Modern SAT solvers are capable of solving problems with thousands of variables, which would normally require exponential time.

The Boolean Pythagorean triples problem was resolved using a SAT solver, demonstrating the power of AI in mathematical research.

A 68-gigabyte proof generated by a SAT solver after two days of computation highlights the potential of AI in complex problem-solving.

While SAT solvers are powerful, they require clever problem conversion into Boolean sentences and cannot replace the role of mathematicians.

Neural networks, another AI technique, have been used to find counterexamples in combinatorics, saving time for mathematicians.

The cross entropy method used by Adam Wagner trains a neural network to generate graphs that are likely counterexamples to conjectures.

The process of retraining the neural network based on the closest counterexamples aims to gradually disprove mathematical conjectures.

AI techniques like neural networks could potentially save mathematicians significant time by disproving false conjectures more efficiently.

The potential of AI in pure math research is vast, with the possibility of finding examples that no human could feasibly discover.

While AI is unlikely to replace mathematicians, it is poised to become another valuable tool in their research toolkit.

The integration of AI in mathematical research opens up new possibilities for solving complex problems and disproving conjectures.